List of Acronyms

20CRv3: Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project version 3

2D-OI: Two-dimensional optimal interpolation

AgCFSR: Climate Forcing Dataset for Agricultural Modeling based on CFSR data

AgERA5: ECMWF ERA5 data for Agrometeorological indicators

AGCM: Atmospheric General Circulation Model

AgMERRA: Climate Forcing Dataset for Agricultural Modeling based on MERRA data

AHCCD: Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Dataset

AMSR-E: Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System sensor

ANUSPLIN: Australian National University Spline

Arctic-rcc: Arctic Regional Climate Center

ASRv2: Arctic System Reanalysis version 2

AWI: Alfred Wegener Institute

BCCA: Bias-correct climate analogues

BCCAQv2: Bias Correction/Constructed Analogues with Quantile mapping reordering version 2

CAA: Canadian Arctic Archipelago

CALM: Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring

CanESM2: Canadian Earth System Model version 2

CANGRD: Canadian Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Anomalies

CanLEAD: Canadian Large Ensembles Adjusted Dataset

CanSWE: Canadian Historical Snow Water Equivalent dataset

CCCS: Canadian Centre for Climate Services

CCI: Climate Change Initiative

CCIN: Canadian Cryospheric Information Network

CCMEP: Canadian Centre for Meteorological and Environmental Prediction

CDD: Maximum Number of Consecutive Dry Days

CEDA: Centre for Environmental Data Analysis

CEHQ: Centre d’Expertise Hydrique du Québec

CEN: Centre d'études nordiques

CERSAT: Centre ERS d'Archivage et de Traitement

CFS: Canadian Forest Service

CFSv2: The NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2

CFSR: Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

CHM: Canadian Hydrological Model

CIRA: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere

CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

CIRNAC: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada

CIS: Canadian Ice Service

CloudSat: CLOUD SATellite

CMAP: CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation

CMIP: Climate Model Intercomparison Project (phase 5, CMIP5; and phase 6, CMIP6)

CMORPH: CPC MORPHing technique, a high resolution precipitation dataset

CoCoRaHS: Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network,

CORDEX: Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment

CPC: Climate Prediction Center

CPCU: CPC Unified Gauge-Based Analysis of Global Daily Precipitation

CRBCPI: Climate-Resilient Buildings and Core Public Infrastructure

CRCM5: Canadian regional Climate Model version 5

CRD: Climate Research Division

Crocus-ERA5: Météo-France 1 D snow model using ERA5 data

CryoSat: CRYOgenic SATellite

CRU: Climatic Research Unit

CRU CL: Climatic Research Unit climate data over global land areas

CRUTEM4: Climatic Research Unit Air Temperature Anomalies version 4

CRU TS: Climatic Research Unit Time Series

CSA: Canadian Standards Association

CSV: Comma-separated values

Daymet: Daily Meteorological Surface Data

DIAS: Data Integration and Analysis System

DOE: United States Department of Energy

ECCC: Environment and Climate Change Canada

ECMWF: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

EM: Electromagnetic Induction

ERA5: Fifth major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF

ERA5-Land: ECMWF dataset for land applications based on ERA5

ERA-Interim: ECMWF global atmospheric reanalysis superseded now by the ERA5 reanalysis

ESA: European Space Agency

ESGF: Earth System Grid Federation

ESM: Earth System Model

ESMValTool: Earth System Model Evaluation Tool

ESRI: Environmental Systems Research Institute

ETCCDI: Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices

EUMETSAT: European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

FWI: Fire Weather Index

GCM: General Circulation Model

GCOS: Global Climate Observing System

GDDs: Growing Degree Days

GEOSCAN: Geological Survey of Canada

GSCNC: Geological Survey of Canada - Northern Canada

GeoTIFF: Geographic Tagged Image File Format

GHGs: Green House Gases

GISTEMP: Goddard Institue for Space Studies air surface temperature analysis

GLDAS: Global Land Data Assimilation System

GlobSnow: Global Snow Project

GloFAS: Global Flood Awareness System

GloH2O: Portal with global data

GMAO: Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

GMFD: Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset for land surface modeling

GNWT: Government of the Northwest Territories

GPCC: Global Precipitation Climatology Center

GPCP: Global Precipitation Climatology Project

GPI: Geostationary Operational Environmental Sounder Precipitation Index

GPM: Global Precipitation Measurement

GSFC: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

GTN‐P: Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost

GWF: Global Water Futures

GWFNet: Global Water Futures Net catalogue

HadCRUT3: Hadley Centre Climatic Research Unit Temperature version 3

HadISDH: Met Office Hadley Centre Intergrated Surface Dataset of Humidity

HDDs: Heating Degree Days

HDF: Hierarchical Data Format

HRES: ECMWF’s operational high-resolution atmospheric model

HRLDAS: ECMWF’s High Resolution Land Data Assimilation system

HVAC: Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning

HTESSEL: land surface scheme in ERA5 (Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land incorporating land surface Hydrology)

HYDAT: Hydrometric Database

IABP: International Arctic Buoy Programme

IAMs: Integrated Assessment Models (

ICESat: NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite

IDF: Intensity-Duration-Frequency

IFREMER: French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea

IFS: ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System

IMERG: Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM

IMS: Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System

IPA: International Permafrost Association

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISD: Integrated Surface Database

IT: Information Technology

ITK: Indigenous Traditional Knowledge

IQ: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit

JMA: Japan Meteorological Agency

JRA-55: Japanese 55-year Reanalysis

LSM: Land-surface model

LST: Land Surface Temperature

LTCE: Long Term Climate Extremes

MBCn: Multivariate bias correction with the N-dimensional probability density function transform

MERRA: Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications

MERRA-2: Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications version 2

MERRA-Land: A land-only ("off-line") replay of the MERRA land model component

MESH: Modelisation Environmentale Communautaire – Surface and Hydrology

Met1km: 1-km Resolution Daily Meteorological Dataset

MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer

Mosaic: One of the four land surface models used at GLDAS at NASA

MSC: Meteorological Service of Canada

MSU: Microwave Sounding Unit

MSWEP: Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation

NARR: North American Regional Reanalysis

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCDC: National Climatic Data Center

NCEI: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

NCEP: National Centers for Environmental Prediction

NESDIS: National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

NLDAS: North American Land Data Assimilation System,

NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Noah: One of the four land surface models used at GLDAS at NASA

NRCan: Natural Resources Canada

NRCS: Natural Resources Conservation Service

NSIDC: National Snow & Ice Data Center

N.W.T.: Northwest Territories

OGCM: Ocean General Circulation Model

OPI: Outgoing longwave radiation Precipitation Index

OSI SAF: Satellite Application Facility on Ocean and Sea Ice

Ouranos: Consortium sur la climatologie régionale et l'adaptation aux changements climatiques onsortium sur la climatologie régionale et

PAVICS: Analytics and Visualization for Climate Science

PCIC: Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium.

PCMDI: Program for Climate Model Diagnosis & Intercomparison

PDC: Polar Data Catalogue

PERSIANN: Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks

PIN: Permafrost Information Network

PIOMAS: Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System

PMW: Passive Microwave

PNWNAMET: Pacific Northwest North America meteorological dataset

PRCPTOT: Total precipitation

PRISM: Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model

PWRF: Polar Weather Research and Forecasting Model

q: absolute and specific humidity

QDM: Quantile Delta Mapping

R-ARCTICNET: Regional, Arctic Hydrometeorological data Network

RDA: NCAR Research Data Archive

RADARSAT: Radar Satellite

RCM: Regional Climate Model

RCP: Representative Concentration Pathway

RDRSv2: Regional Deterministic Reforecast System version 2

REDCAPP: Reanalysis Downscaling Cold Air Pooling Parameterization

RH: Relative humidity

RHBN: Reference Hydrometric Basin Network

RMSE: Root-mean-square error

RPN: format of standard files used at ECCC

RTS: Retrogressive Thaw Slumps

RX1day: Maximum 1-Day Total Precipitation

RX5days: Maximum 5-Day Precipitation

S14FD: S14 retrospecitive meteorological forcing dataset

SCD: Snow Cover Duration

SCDNA: Station-based serially complete dataset for North America

SCE: Snow Cover Extent

SDII: Simple precipitation intensity index

SIKU: Indigenous Knowledge Social Network

SLP: Sea-Level Pressure

SMAP: Soil Moisture Active Passive

SmartICE: Sea-ice Monitoring and Real-Time Information for Coastal Environments

SMOS: Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity

SMMR: Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

Snow CCI: Snow Climate Change Initiative

SSM/I: Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

SSMIS: Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder

SSP: Shared Socioeconomic Pathway

SWAT: Soil and Water Assessment Tool

SWE: Snow Water equivalent

SWOT: Surface Water and Ocean Topography

Tdw: Dew point temperature

Tmax: Daily maximum temperature

Tmean: Daily mean temperature

Tmin: Daily minimum temperature

TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

UCAR: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

UDEL: University of Delaware

ULS: Upward-Looking Sonars

UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme

USDA: United States Department of Agriculture

UQAM: Université du Quebec à Montreal

WCRP: World Climate Research Programme

WHERD: Watershed Hydrology and Ecology Research Division

WMO: World Meteorological Organization

WMS: Web Map Service

WorldClim2: Version 2 of World Conservation Monitoring Centre high spatial resolution global weather and climate data

WSC: Water Survey of Canada

WWIC: Weather, Water, Ice, and Climate services

XML: Extensible Markup Language